Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within cavities in the brain called ventricles. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the ventricles and in the choroid plexus. It circulates through the ventricular system in the brain and is absorbed into the bloodstream. This fluid is in constant circulation and has many functions, including to surround the brain and spinal cord and act as a protective cushion against injury. It contains nutrients and proteins necessary for the nourishment and normal function of the brain, and carries waste products away from surrounding tissues.
Hydrocephalus occurs when there is an imbalance between the amount of CSF that is produced and the rate at which it is absorbed. As the CSF builds up, it causes the ventricles to enlarge and the pressure inside the head to increase.
A brain aneurysm rarely causes any symptoms unless it bursts (ruptures).
Unruptured brain aneurysms occasionally cause symptoms if they're particularly large or press against tissues or nerves inside the brain.
Symptoms of an unruptured brain aneurysm can include:
- visual disturbances – such as loss of vision or double vision
- pain above or around your eye
- numbness or weakness on one side of your face
- difficulty speaking
- loss of balance
- difficulty concentrating or problems with short-term memory
You should see your GP as soon as possible if you experience symptoms of an unruptured brain aneurysm. Although most aneurysms won't rupture, it's important to get it checked in case treatment is necessary.
- Brain aneurysms are caused by a weakness in the walls of blood vessels in the brain. There are several reasons why this may happen, although an exact cause isn't always clear.
- The brain requires a large supply of blood delivered via four main blood vessels that run up the neck and into the brain.
- These blood vessels divide into smaller and smaller vessels in the same way the trunk of a tree divides into branches and twigs.
- Most aneurysms develop at the points where the blood vessels divide and branch off, as these areas are often weaker.
- A brain aneurysm is usually diagnosed using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and angiography (MRA), or a computerised tomography (CT) scan and angiography (CTA).
- An MRI scan is usually used to look for aneurysms in the brain that haven't ruptured. This type of scan uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of your brain.
- A CT scan is usually preferred if it's thought the aneurysm has ruptured and there's bleeding on the brain (subarachnoid haemorrhage).
- This type of scan takes a series of X-rays, which are then assembled by a computer into a detailed three-dimensional image.
- In some cases, a ruptured aneurysm is not picked up by a CT scan. If a CT scan is negative but your symptoms strongly suggest you have a ruptured aneurysm, a test called a lumbar puncture will usually be carried out.
- A lumbar puncture is a procedure where a needle is inserted into the lower part of the spine to remove a sample of the fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) that surrounds and supports the brain and spinal cord. This fluid can be analysed for signs of bleeding.
You would need to stay overnight at the hospital following calf augmentation. Another week after the surgery is required in India before you can fly back.
If you're diagnosed with an unruptured brain aneurysm, a risk assessment will be carried out to assess whether surgery is necessary.
The assessment process is usually based on the following factors:
- your age – research has found the risks associated with surgery in older adults often outweigh the potential benefits (extending natural lifespan)
- the size of the aneurysm – aneurysms larger than 7mm often require surgical treatment, as do aneurysms larger than 3mm in cases where there are other risk factors
- the location of the aneurysm – brain aneurysms located on larger blood vessels have a higher risk of rupture
- family history – brain aneurysms are considered to have a higher risk of rupturing if you have a history of ruptured brain aneurysm in your family
- underlying health conditions – some health conditions increase the risk of a rupture, such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) or poorly controlled high blood pressure
After these factors have been taken into consideration, your surgical team should be able to tell you whether the benefits of surgery outweigh the potential risks in your case.
- Brain aneurysms can be treated using surgery if they've burst (ruptured) or there's a risk they will.
- Preventative surgery is usually only recommended if there's a high risk of a rupture. This is because surgery has its own risk of potentially serious complications, such as brain damage or stroke.
We encourage you to educate yourself about Aneurysm Treatment in India, and also the benefits from the right kind of Surgery before making a choice.
You can be rest assured that with Surgicure International's expertise, we bring in a wonderful experience of Surgery in India, which we have been doing so for almost a decade now.